Variance Positions in Scala, Demystified

10 minute read

Variance in Scala is one of the most powerful concepts of its type system. It’s simple in theory, but it can cause massive headaches when we think we got the hang of writing abstract, generic code. In this article, we’ll take a careful and structured look at one of the most cryptic compiler errors you’ll ever see:

Error: covariant type T occurs in contravariant position in type T of value myArg

We won’t need a particular project setup for this article - a plain Scala/SBT project will do.

We discuss variance and variance positions in depth in the Advanced Scala course. Check it out!

1. Background

This article will assume you’re familiar with generics (either in Java, Scala or some other statically typed language).

Beyond the capability of the Java generics, Scala also has the concept of variance, which is a way of transferring the subtype relationship from the type arguments to the generic type.

This sounds quite complicated until we bring it back to real life. Imagine we’re implementing a generic collection which we’ll call MyList[T]. If we have a small class hierarchy — -e.g. the classical example with Animals and then Cats and Dogs which extend Animals — then it makes sense to ask the following question:

If Dogs are also Animals, then is a list of Dogs also a list of Animals?

For a list, the answer is yes. However, this answer doesn’t make sense for every type.

2. The Variance Question

To put it another way, if we wanted to write a new Thing[T] generic type in our code base, the following question is important:

If A is a subtype of B, then should Thing[A] be a subtype of Thing[B]?

This is the variance question.

If our Thing is a collection, such as a list, the answer is yes: if Dogs are Animals, then a collection of Dogs is also a collection of Animals. So from a substitution perspective, we could assign a collection of Dogs to a collection of Animals:

val dogs: MyList[Animal] = new MyList[Dog]

We say that MyList is covariant in its type argument [T], and we mark it with a small + sign in the class declaration: class MyList[+T]

But that’s not the only possibility. We can also answer “no”, i.e. Thing[A] and Thing[B] have no subtype relationship, i.e. we can’t assign one to a value bearing the other type. In this case, we’d call Thing invariant in its type argument [T], and we leave the type argument T as it is in the class declaration, i.e. class Thing[T]

There’s still one more possible answer: “hell no, it’s backwards!”. In other words, if A is a subtype of B, then Thing[B] is a subtype of Thing[A]. This is called contravariant, and we mark it with a - sign at the class declaration. For the Animals use case, a good contravariant example would be a Vet:

class Vet[-T]

val lassiesVet: Vet[Dog] = new Vet[Animal]

A Vet[Animal] is a proper replacement for a Vet[Dog], because a Vet can treat any Animal, and so she/he can treat a Dog too.

If you want to keep a good rule of thumb on how to pick variance for your new generic type, it’s this:

3. The Variance Positions Problem

Now that we’ve found that a collection should be covariant, we get to work and write our own list, because of course we can:

abstract class MyList[+T] {
  def head: T
  def tail: MyList[T]
  def add(elem: T): MyList[T]

We start from the very basics. But before we even write a proper subtype for MyList, we hit a wall:

Error: covariant type T occurs in contravariant position in type T of value elem

Just as we thought we understood variance, here comes the compiler trying to prove we don’t know squat.

We’ll take a careful, structured approach of what this problem means, and then we’ll learn how we can solve it. For the following examples, we’ll use the same example with animals.

3.1. Types of vals Are in Covariant Position

Let’s say we had a Vet. As discussed before, a Vet should be a contravariant type. Let’s also imagine this vet had a favorite animal val field, of the same type she can treat:

class Vet[-T](val favoriteAnimal: T)

Assuming this was possible, then the following code would compile:

val garfield = new Cat
val theVet: Vet[Animal] = new Vet[Animal](garfield)
val lassiesVet: Vet[Dog] = theVet

See any trouble here?

  • lassiesVet is declared as Vet[Dog]; as per contravariance we can assign a Vet[Animal]
  • theVet is a Vet[Animal] (typed correctly), but is constructed with a Cat (a legit Animal)
  • lassiesVet.favoriteAnimal is supposed to be a Dog per the generic type declared, but it’s really a Cat per its construction

No-no. This is a type conflict. A sound type checker will not compile this code. We say that the types of val fields are in covariant position, and this is what the compiler will show you:

Error: contravariant type T occurs in covariant position in type T of value favoriteAnimal

If the generic type was covariant (e.g. a list), then it would work. If the generic type was invariant, we wouldn’t even have this problem, as we’d have the same type T everywhere.

3.2. Types of vars Are Also in Contravariant Position

If our contravariant Vet example had a var field, we’d have the exact same problem right at initialization. Therefore, types of var members are in covariant position as well. Because vars can be reassigned, they come with an extra restriction.

Let’s think about Option[T] for a second. Should it be covariant or contravariant?

Spoiler: it’s covariant. If Dog extends Animal then Option[Dog] should be a subtype of Option[Animal]. Pick your favorite reason (both are true):

  • If a dog is an animal, then a maybe-dog is also a maybe-animal.
  • Think of an Option as a list with at most one element. If a list is covariant, then an option is covariant.

Now, imagine that (for whatever reason) we had a mutable version of an option. Let’s call it MutableOption[+T] with a subtype containing a var member, e.g. class MutableSome[+T](var contents: T).

Here’s what we’re going to do next:

val maybeAnimal: MutableSome[Animal] = new MutableSome[Dog](new Dog)
maybeAnimal.contents = new Cat

The first line is perfectly legal: because MutableSome is covariant, we can assign a maybe-dog on the right-hand side of the assignment. Now, because we declared maybeAnimal to be a MutableSome[Animal], the compiler would allow us to change the contents variable to another kind of Animal. Because a Cat is an Animal, then a Cat is a legal value to use, which would also blow up the type guarantee. That is because the original MutableSome[Dog] we used on the first line also comes with a guarantee that the contents are of type Dog, but we’ve just ruined it.

Therefore, we say that types of var fields are in contravariant position.

But wait, didn’t we say that they were in covariant position as per the earlier argument?

Yes! That’s true as well. The types of var fields are in covariant AND contravariant position. The only way they would work is if the generic type were invariant, which eliminates the problem (same type argument everywhere, no need for substitution).

3.3. Types of Method Arguments Are in Contravariant Position

This says it all. How do we prove it? We try the reverse and see how it’s wrong.

Let’s take the (now) classical example of a list. A list is covariant, we know that. So what would be wrong with

abstract class MyList[+T] {
  def head: T
  def tail: MyList[T]
  def add(elem: T): MyList[T]

Let’s imagine this code compiled. Let’s also imagine we gave some dummy implementations to these methods, as the implementation doesn’t matter, only their signature. As per the covariance declaration, we could say

val animals: MyList[Animal] = new MyList[Cat]
val moreAnimals = animals.add(new Dog)

which again breaks the type guarantees. Line 2 allows us to add an Animal to animals, and a Dog is an Animal, so we can. However, at line 1, we are using a MyList[Cat], which bears the guarantee that the list contains just cats, and we’ve just added a Dog to it, which breaks the type checker. Therefore, we say that the type of method arguments is in contravariant position.

The (contravariant) Vet example works:

class Vet[-T] {
  def heal(animal: T): Boolean = true // implementation unimportant

val lassiesVet: Vet[Dog] = new Vet[Animal]
lassiesVet.heal(lassie) // correct; it's a Dog, which is also an Animal; Vet[Animal] can heal any Animal
lassiesVet.heal(garfield) // legitimate error: Lassie's vet heals Dogs, so Cats aren't allowed

3.4. Method Return Types Are in Covariant Position

Again, we can prove the title by trying the reverse. Assume a contravariant type (again, our favorite Vet) and write a method returning a T:

abstract class Vet[-T] {
  def rescueAnimal(): T

In this case, we can write

val vet: Vet[Animal] = new Vet[Animal] {
  override def rescueAnimal(): Animal = new Cat

val lassiesVet: Vet[Dog] = vet // OK because it's a Vet[Animal]
val rescuedDog: Dog = vet.rescueAnimal // what's up dawg, I'm a Cat

Again, breaking the type guarantees: we use a Vet[Animal] whose method returns a Cat, so when we finally invoke the method on lassiesVet (which is declared as Vet[Dog]), the type checker expects a Dog but we get a Cat per its real implementation! Not funny.

Therefore, we say method return types are in covariant position. A covariant example works fine for this case.

4. How to Solve the Variance Positions Problem

We proved that a covariant list cannot have an add(elem: T) method because it breaks type guarantees. However, does that forbid us from ever adding an element to a list?!

Hell, no.

Let’s take this back to first principles. We said that we can’t add an add(elem: T) method to a list, because otherwise we could write

val animals: MyList[Animal] = new MyList[Dog]
val moreAnimals = animals.add(new Cat)

Go back to real life: if we had 3 dogs and a cat, what would the group of 4 be called?

Animals. The most specific type that describes all four.

What if our add(elem: T): MyList[T] received an argument of a different type and returned a result of a different type? Allow me to make a suggestion:

def add[S >: T](elem: S): MyList[S]

In other words, if we happen to add an element of a different type than the original list, we’ll let the compiler infer the lowest type S which describes both the element being added AND the existing elements of the list. As a result, we’ll obtain a MyList[S]. In our cats vs dogs example, if we add a cat to a list of dogs, we’ll obtain a list of animals. If we add a flower to it, we’ll obtain a list of life forms. If we add a number, we’ll obtain a list of Any. You get the idea.

This is how we solve the cryptic “covariant type T occurs in contravariant position”:

abstract class MyList[+T] {
  def add[S >: T](elem: S): MyList[S]

Similarly, we can solve the opposite “contravariant type occurs in covariant position” with the opposite type bound:

abstract class Vet[-T] {
  def rescueAnimal[S <: T](): S

Assuming we can actually implement this method in such general terms, the compiler would be happy: we can force the Vet to return an instance of a particular type:

val lassiesVet: Vet[Dog] = new Vet[Animal]
val rescuedDog: Dog = vet.rescueAnimal[Dog] // type checking passes now

5. Conclusion

This is one of the hardest parts of the Scala type system, even though it starts from such an innocent question (should lists of dogs be lists of animals). If you’re curious, the advanced Scala course contains what you’ve just learned (and lots more on Scala’s type system) with some practice exercises.

This article was pretty dense, and we learned quite a bit:

  • the variance question: if A extends B, should Thing[A] be a subtype of Thing[B]?
  • variance possibilities as answers to the variance question: covariant (yes), invariant (no), contravariant (hell no, backwards)
  • types val fields are in covariant position
  • types of var fields are in covariant AND contravariant position
  • types of method arguments are in contravariant position
  • method return types are in covariant position
  • we solve the “covariant type occurs in contravariant position” by “widening”: we add a type argument [S >: T] and change the argument type to S
  • we solve the “contravariant type occurs in covariant position” by “narrowing”: we add a type argument [S <: T] and change the method return type to S

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